• Hydrogen peroxide production process
  • Hydrogen peroxide production process

Tsarin samar da hydrogen peroxide

Takaitaccen Bayani:

Tsarin sinadaran hydrogen peroxide shine H2O2, wanda aka fi sani da hydrogen peroxide.Bayyanar ruwa ne mara launi mara launi, yana da ƙarfi oxidant, maganin sa mai ruwa ya dace da maganin rauni na likita da gurɓataccen muhalli da lalata abinci.


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Tags samfurin

Tsarin samar da hydrogen peroxide

Tsarin sinadaran hydrogen peroxide shine H2O2, wanda aka fi sani da hydrogen peroxide.Bayyanar ruwa ne mara launi mara launi, yana da ƙarfi oxidant, maganin sa mai ruwa ya dace da maganin rauni na likita da gurɓataccen muhalli da lalata abinci.A karkashin yanayi na al'ada, zai bazu cikin ruwa da oxygen, amma raguwar raguwa yana da jinkirin gaske, kuma saurin amsawa yana haɓaka ta hanyar ƙara mai kara kuzari - manganese dioxide ko radiation na gajeren lokaci.

Kaddarorin jiki

Maganin ruwa shine ruwa mara launi mara launi, mai narkewa a cikin ruwa, barasa, ether, kuma maras narkewa a cikin benzene da ether petroleum.

Tsabtataccen hydrogen peroxide shine ruwa mai ɗanɗano mai haske shuɗi mai haske tare da wurin narkewa na -0.43 ° C da wurin tafasa na 150.2 ° C. Hydrogen peroxide mai tsafta zai canza tsarin tsarin kwayoyin halitta, don haka madaidaicin narkewa zai canza.Ƙaƙƙarfan ƙima a wurin daskarewa shine 1.71 g/, kuma yawan ya ragu yayin da zafin jiki ya ƙaru.Yana da matsayi mafi girma na ƙungiyar fiye da H2O, don haka dielectric akai-akai da wurin tafasa ya fi ruwa girma.Pure hydrogen peroxide ne in mun gwada da barga, kuma an violently bazu cikin ruwa da oxygen lokacin da mai tsanani zuwa 153 ° C. Ya kamata a lura da cewa babu intermolecular hydrogen bond a cikin hydrogen peroxide.

Hydrogen peroxide yana da tasirin oxidation mai ƙarfi akan abubuwan halitta kuma ana amfani dashi gabaɗaya azaman wakili na oxidizing.

Abubuwan sinadaran

1. Oxidative
(Farin gubar a cikin zanen mai [basic gubar carbonate] zai amsa tare da hydrogen sulfide a cikin iska don samar da sulfide na gubar baki, wanda za'a iya wanke shi da hydrogen peroxide)
(yana buƙatar matsakaiciyar alkaline)

2. Ragewa
3. A cikin 10 ml na 10% samfurin bayani, ƙara 5 ml na dilute sulfuric acid gwajin bayani (TS-241) da 1 ml na potassium permanganate gwajin bayani (TS-193).
Ya kamata a sami kumfa kuma launin potassium permanganate ya ɓace.Yana da acidic zuwa litmus.Idan akwai kwayoyin halitta, yana da fashewa.
4. Ɗauki 1 g na samfurin (daidai zuwa 0.1 MG) kuma tsarma zuwa 250.0 ml da ruwa.An dauki 25 ml na wannan maganin, kuma an ƙara 10 ml na maganin gwajin gwajin sulfuric acid (TS-241), sannan kuma titration tare da 0.1 mol/L potassium permanganate.0.1 mol / l a kowace ml.Potassium permanganate yayi daidai da 1.70 MG na hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2).
5. A cikin yanayin kwayoyin halitta, zafi, 'yantar da iskar oxygen da ruwa, idan akwai chromic acid, potassium permanganate, karfe foda ya amsa da karfi.Don hana bazuwar, ana iya ƙara adadin adadin na'ura kamar sodium stannate, sodium pyrophosphate ko makamancin haka.
6. Hydrogen peroxide acid ne mai rauni sosai: H2O2 = (mai juyawa) = H ++ HO2-(Ka = 2.4 x 10-12).Saboda haka, peroxide na karfe za a iya daukarsa a matsayin gishiri.

Babban manufar

Amfani da hydrogen peroxide ya kasu kashi kashi na likita, soja da amfani da masana'antu.Disinfection na yau da kullun shine hydrogen peroxide na likita.Hydrogen peroxide na likita na iya kashe ƙwayoyin cuta na hanji, pyogenic cocci, da yisti na pathogenic, waɗanda galibi ana amfani da su don lalata abubuwa.Hydrogen peroxide yana da tasirin iskar shaka, amma taro na hydrogen peroxide na likita daidai yake da ko ƙasa da 3%.Idan aka goge shi zuwa saman raunin, zai ƙone, za a yi oxidized zuwa fari da kumfa, ana iya wanke shi da ruwa.Bayan mintuna 3-5 Mayar da asalin sautin fata.

Ana amfani da masana'antar sinadarai azaman albarkatun ƙasa don samar da sodium perborate, sodium percarbonate, peracetic acid, sodium chlorite, thiourea peroxide, da dai sauransu, abubuwan da ke haifar da oxidizing kamar tartaric acid da bitamin.Ana amfani da masana'antar harhada magunguna azaman bactericide, disinfectant, da oxidant don samar da thiram da lita 40 na maganin rigakafi.Ana amfani da masana'antar bugu da rini azaman wakili na bleaching don yadudduka na auduga da kuma azaman mai canza launi don rini.Cire baƙin ƙarfe da sauran ƙarfe masu nauyi lokacin da aka yi amfani da su wajen samar da gishirin ƙarfe ko wasu mahadi.Hakanan ana amfani dashi a cikin baho na lantarki don cire ƙazantattun ƙwayoyin cuta da haɓaka ingancin sassan da aka ɗora.Har ila yau, ana amfani da shi don bleaching ulu, danyen siliki, hauren giwa, ɓangaren litattafan almara, mai, da dai sauransu. Ana iya amfani da yawan adadin hydrogen peroxide a matsayin man fetur na roka.

Amfani da jama'a: don magance warin magudanar kicin, zuwa kantin magani don siyan hydrogen peroxide da ruwa tare da foda na wankewa a cikin magudanar za a iya lalata su, lalata, haifuwa;

3% hydrogen peroxide (jinin likitanci) don lalata raunuka.

Dokar masana'antu

Hanyar samar da alkaline hydrogen peroxide: na'urar lantarki mai dauke da krypton don samar da alkaline hydrogen peroxide, wanda ke nuna cewa kowane nau'i na lantarki yana kunshe da farantin anode, ragar filastik, membrane cation da cathode mai dauke da helium, a saman sama. da ƙananan ƙarshen wurin aiki na lantarki.Akwai ɗakin rarraba don shigar da ruwa da ɗakin tattarawa don fitar da ruwan, kuma ana shirya bango a mashigar ruwa, kuma nau'in lantarki mai nau'in nau'i-nau'i yana ɗaukar hanyar haɗi mai iyaka na dipole don tsawaita laushin filastik na anode da ke yawo. mashigar ruwa da magudanar alkali.Bayan an haɗa bututun zuwa riɓi mai tarin yawa, rukunin lantarki da yawa yana haɗuwa ta farantin naúrar.

Hanyar neutralization na phosphoric acid: an kwatanta shi da cewa an shirya shi daga maganin sodium peroxide na ruwa mai ruwa ta hanyar matakai masu zuwa:

(1) Maganin ruwa mai ruwa na sodium peroxide an daidaita shi zuwa pH na 9.0 zuwa 9.7 tare da phosphoric acid ko sodium dihydrogen phosphate NaH2PO4 don samar da maganin ruwa na Na2HPO4 da H2O2.

(2) Maganin ruwa na Na2HPO4 da H2O2 an sanyaya su zuwa +5 zuwa -5 °C ta yadda mafi yawan Na2HPO4 ya hado kamar Na2HPO4•10H2O hydrate.

(3) Cakuda da ke ɗauke da Na2HPO4 • 10H 2 O hydrate da maganin hydrogen peroxide mai ruwa da tsaki an raba su a cikin maɓalli na centrifugal don raba Na 2HPO 4 •10H 2 O lu'ulu'u daga ƙaramin adadin Na 2 HPO 4 da maganin hydrogen peroxide mai ruwa.

(4) Maganin ruwa mai ɗauke da ɗan ƙaramin adadin Na2HPO4 da hydrogen peroxide an fitar da shi a cikin injin daskarewa don samun tururi mai ɗauke da H2O2 da H2O, sannan aka fitar da ruwan gishiri mai ƙarfi na Na2HPO4 mai ɗauke da hydrogen peroxide daga ƙasa kuma an mayar da shi cikin tankin neutralization. .

(5) The tururi dauke da H2O2 da H2O an hõre ga juzu'i distillation karkashin rage matsa lamba don samun game da 30% H2O2 samfurin.

Hanyar sulfuric acid: electrolyzed 60% sulfuric acid don samun peroxodisulfuric acid, sa'an nan kuma hydrolyzed don samun taro na 95% hydrogen peroxide.

Hanyar 2-Ethyl oxime: Babban hanyar samar da sikelin masana'antu shine hanyar 2-ethyl oxime (EAQ).2-ethyl hydrazine a wani zazzabi.

Ƙarfin yana amsawa tare da hydrogen a ƙarƙashin aikin mai haɓakawa don samar da 2-ethylhydroquinone, kuma 2-ethylhydroquinone yana haifar da oxygen tare da oxygen a wani zazzabi da matsa lamba.

Rage halayen, 2-ethylhydroquinone an rage don samar da 2-ethyl hydrazine kuma an kafa hydrogen peroxide.Bayan hakar, ana samun maganin hydrogen peroxide mai ruwa, kuma a ƙarshe ana tsarkake shi ta hanyar hydrocarbon mai kamshi mai nauyi don samun ingantaccen maganin hydrogen peroxide mai ruwa, wanda akafi sani da hydrogen peroxide.Yawancin wannan tsari ana amfani da shi don shirya 27.5% hydrogen peroxide, kuma mafi girma maida hankali aqueous hydrogen peroxide bayani (kamar 35%, 50% hydrogen peroxide) za a iya samu ta distillation.


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